What are Denim Garments Washing?
Washing usually refers to the removal process of dust & dirt from the garments with the help of water & detergents. However, in textile industry, garments washing carries some significant meaning. Garments washing are the technology that changes or modify the outlook or appearance, fashions, comfortability and hand feel of the garments. Garments washing technology is usually of two types, Wet washing & Dry washing, and these techniques are applied on solid dyed and printed garments. In case of garments, certain washing techniques require different types of chemicals & materials, like acid, enzymes, bleaching agents, stones etc.
Why Is Denim & Garments Washing Important?
- To change/modify the outlook or appearance of the denim or garments.
- To remove the waste materials like dust, dirt & starches from the denim.
- To make the garments comfortable to wearing.
- To modify the fashion of the garments.
- To give an old look to the garments.
- To remove the toxic materials from the garments.
- To make the garments become soft and handy.
- To improve the smoothness and brightness.
- To create crease, abrasion, scratch, scraping & related effects on the garments.
Types of Denim Garments Wash
The washing process that is done with the help of anti-back stainer using water and a little amount of detergent is called rinse wash. In this case, the shade of denim does not change much more, it remains a dark shade like raw denim. Back staining is one of the problems with this type of washing.
In the case of resin wash, usually resin is used in the washing bath. Before inserting the garments, first the resin is added into the washing bath, then the washing is done by loading the garments. However, after washing process the garments become a little hard.
Silicone Softener Wash
In case of silicone softener wash, softener and silicone are used together. Here silicone is used to make the surface of the cellulosic fabric smooth and slippery and softeners are used to give the garments softness and good hand feel. In this case the softener can be ionic or non-ionic.
Normal wash is usually a combination of rinse wash and softener wash. In this case first the rinse wash is done, and finally complete the softener washing process. Normal wash removes various types of dust, dirt and starch from the surface of the denim.
Caustic wash is a new technique in the current market and becoming more popular in the garments industry. There are different types of washes according to the market demands and fashionable garments industry, caustic wash is one of them. Caustic wash is also called pre-printing wash. Reactive dyed, sulfur dyed, direct dyed and printed garments are usually washed with caustic to remove impurities.
Pigment wash is commonly used in dyed & printed garments with pigments using dye washing technology. After the pigment wash, a light fading effect is created in the garment. Caustic soda, acetic acid, soda ash and detergent are mainly used in this process.
The washing process in which enzymes are used is called enzyme wash. The enzyme wash makes the fabric much smoother and it helps to increase the smoothness and softness of the fabric surface. The enzyme can be neutral or acidic depending on the needs of the shade. Enzyme is a biochemical substance, generally cellulase enzymes are used to give a worn look by degrading celluloses.
This type of washing uses bleaching agents instead of using stones, hence it is called bleach wash. In case of bleach wash, washing time is a very important issue because, if the time is not maintained properly, there is possibility of over bleaching and the color of the garments may be lost. Chlorine bleaches are used mostly in this washing process like sodium hypochlorite. Recently a new bio-bleaching technique called Deni-bleach has been discovered.
Enzyme Bleach Wash
In case of enzyme bleach wash, first the enzyme wash is done and then complete the bleach washing process using chlorine or non-chlorine bleach. The enzyme bleach wash shade is made from dark to light so, there needs to be extra caution here.
Pumice Stone Wash
The washing process in which stones are used is called stone wash. Generally, Pumice stones are used in this process, Pumice stone is a light weight stone made by volcanic eruption. It should be noted that large and hard stones are suitable for heavyweight garments and small and soft stones are suitable for lightweight garments. In stone washing, due to the friction between the garments and stones the warp yarns are slightly damaged and white weft yarns to come out, creating a different appearance and fading effect. The degree of color fading during the stone wash of any garment depends on some factors such as the ratio of the garment to the stone, the washing time, the size of the stone, etc.
Stone Enzyme Wash
Garments made from twill fabric like jeans/denim is usually enzyme washed with stones. Sometimes the stone enzyme washing method is used in plain woven fabrics. This washing process is applied in garments which are made from Indigo/VAT/Direct dyed fabrics. In this case the enzyme works chemically and the stone works mechanically, resulting in shades like friction or ice/snow on garments more quickly.
Acid wash is one of the most widely used washing methods, which is done by dry tumbling the denim garments. Here, potash and Pumice stones are used for acid wash. First the stones should be dipped in the potash solution, then the stones should be slightly dried and the garments should be washed in the garment washing machine with that dried stones. The result is a fading effect by friction between garments and stones. Sometimes the bleaching process is also done in acid wash.
Rubber Ball Wash
Rubber ball wash is one kind of softener wash. In this process, the garment becomes softer and at the same time the seam abrasion also founds. This type of wash is done to get more hand feel of the garment.
Ozone wash is a new technology and is used to change the color of the garments through washing. Normal washing requires water, chemicals, time and mechanical action but ozone washing does not require much and saves energy and resources. In this case ozone gas is produced for the process using oxygen gas.
Towel Bleach Wash
In case of towel bleach wash, Japanese bleaching powder and a towel are used for washing. First, dip a towel in the bleaching solution. After squeezing, the towels are loaded onto a drying machine and tumbled along with the garments. Finally, an uneven look of the garments is found.
The process by which garment is washed in rope form or by tie is called tie wash. The tie wash creates an uneven crease on the garment, making the garment more glamorous. These are usually applied to denim pants, shirts and jackets.
Ice or Snow Wash
Snow or ice washing is done by soaking the fabric with stones and then drying it with bleaching agents. This wash has the effect on the denim fabric same as snow pattern. Although stone is used here like in stone washing, the stone is used for the purpose of unevenly depositing chemicals in the fabric to create a colored stripe. The chemicals just remove the dyes from the fabric and the fabric takes on the same image as the snow particles.
Sand Blasting Wash
In this method aluminum oxide granules are quickly blasted off the fabric. Aluminum oxide granules are a sandy substance. The frictional force generated by sandy substances, which removes the indigo color of the fibers inside the fabric. Sand blast provides a very uniform result and it is a widely used process for today’s fashion.
Whiskering is a popular and one of the most important dry washing processes. Through this process a particular design is created and then the design is transferred to a thin rubber board or sheets. The pattern is then placed inside the garment and the pattern is scrubbed on top of the pattern that can be depicted. This process is usually done with a whisking pattern or manual hand scrap or laser machine.
Destroy wash has become the most common and the most popular in the fashion market. Dry wash is usually done using different sized stones in a grinding machine. Through this process the weft yarn becomes much worn out making the garment more attractive and fashionable. Different types of machines like grinding m/c, hacksaw blade, needle, knife etc. are used for destroy the garments.
Hand scraping is a manual and widely used procedure in the dry washing department. Hand scraping is done after the whisking process to remove the color of the garment or to fade the color. Since it is done by hand, the pressure must be uniform when scraping on garments.
Potassium permanganate (PP) is sprayed on certain parts of the garment to bring a bright effect and fade the color of the scraped area of the garments. It is often done on denim, twill, poplin fabrics. Liquid potassium permanganate is a pink color but turns brown or gray when dried after application. Sometimes acetic acid or phosphoric acid is added to increase its intensity.
In this technology the laser generates a lot of heat and the fabric is heated according to the design pattern in certain region. The laser energy is absorbed as heat and the material heats up rapidly and begins to melt. Some molten liquid spreads on garments as a result of surface tension. The molten liquid then heats up and slowly evaporates. No chemicals and water are used in this method. It is currently one of the trending waterless washing technologies.
Denim is one of the fashion trends of today’s world, denim garments are usually used in any party or workplace. Customers who are interested in wearing denim garments find that denim is a comfortable and fashionable clothing item. Comfort and stylish features can be supplied to denim in various ways. Here is an attempt to give short description about different types of denim wash.
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